Extremist Groups and the Public Space
Breakdown of Public Targets
- ^ For background on sectarian language in jihadi propaganda, see Emman El-Badawy, Milo Comerford and Peter Welby, Inside the Jihadi Mind: Understanding Ideology and Propaganda, Tony Blair Institute for Global Change, 6 October 2015, https://institute.global/insight/co-existence/inside-jihadi-mind-understanding-ideology-and-propaganda.
- ^ “Boko Haram Has Been Completely Defeated – Nigerian Army”, Channels Television, 4 February 2018, https://www.channelstv.com/2018/02/04/boko-haram-has-been-completely-defeated-nigerian-army/.
- ^ Caitriona Dowd and Adam Drury, “Marginalisation, insurgency and civilian insecurity: Boko Haram and the Lord’s Resistance Army”, Peacebuilding (2017): 145–146.
- ^ Anastasia Voronkova, “Boko Haram’s cross-border attacks: tactical manoeuvring to mitigate weakness”, International Institute for Strategic Studies, 19 July 2017, https://www.iiss.org/en/iiss%20voices/blogsections/iiss-voices-2017-adeb/july-eb75/boko-haram-cross-border-attacks-3066.
- ^ “Peacebuilding efforts needed to tackle Boko Haram, end Lake Chad Basin crisis, Security Council told”, UN News, 13 September 2017, https://news.un.org/en/story/2017/09/564862-peacebuilding-efforts-needed-tackle-boko-haram-end-lake-chad-basin-crisis.
- ^ See also El-Badawy, Comerford and Welby, Inside the Jihadi Mind.
- ^ See, for example, If the Castle Falls, Tony Blair Institute for Global Change.
- ^ Mohamed Mostafa, “Mosul, Iraq: 1.74 million refugees in 11 months of war”, Iraqi News, 21 September 2017, https://www.iraqinews.com/iraq-war/iraq-records-1-74-mln-refugees-11-months-war/.
- ^ “Boko Haram ousted from last remaining stronghold in the Sambisa forest, says Nigerian president”, Telegraph, 24 December 2016, https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2016/12/24/boko-haram-ousted-last-remaining-stronghold-sambisa-forest-says/.
- ^ Tim Lister, “Why the massacre of Muslims in Sinai was too extreme for al Qaeda”, CNN, 28 November 2017, https://edition.cnn.com/2017/11/27/middleeast/egypt-sinai-attack-isis-al-qaeda/index.html.
- ^ “Dozens Killed In Taliban Suicide Car Bombing In Kabul”, RadioFreeEurope Radio Liberty, 21 July 2017, https://www.rferl.org/a/afghanistan-kabul-car-bomb-death-toll/28634452.html.
- ^ Lizzie Dearden, “Stephen Paddock: Isis insists Las Vegas shooter was ‘soldier of caliphate’ as authorities probe gunman's motive”, Independent, 6 October 2017, https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/isis-vegas-shooting-stephen-paddock-repeat-claim-islamic-state-responsibility-police-gunman-motive-a7986161.html.
- ^ Uzair Hasan Rizvi, “The Rising Threat Against Shia Muslims in Pakistan”, Wire, 11 June 2016, https://thewire.in/41862/the-rising-threat-against-shia-muslims-in-pakistan/.
- ^ Michael Georgy, “Special Report: Pakistan’s threat within the Sunni-Shia divide”, Reuters, 24 October 2012, https://www.reuters.com/article/us-pakistan-militants/special-report-pakistans-threat-within-the-sunni-shia-divide-idUSBRE89N00W20121024.
- ^ Rizvi, “The Rising Threat Against Shia Muslims in Pakistan”.
- ^ Dawn Report, “Ahmadi lawyer killed in ‘Lej attack’”, Dawn, 31 March 2017, https://www.dawn.com/news/1323873.
- ^ Usman Ahmad, “Ahmadi Persecution, A Global Issue”, Tony Blair Institute for Global Change, 21 June 2017, https://institute.global/insight/co-existence/ahmadi-persecution-global-issue.
- ^ Kunwar Khuldune Shahid, “An Alliance Between Islamic State and Lashkar-e-Jhangvi in Pakistan Was Inevitable”, Diplomat, 15 November 2016, https://thediplomat.com/2016/11/an-alliance-between-islamic-state-and-lashkar-e-jhangvi-in-pakistan-was-inevitable/.
- ^ “UNAMA Human Rights Report on Mass Killings in Mirza Olang”, UN Missions, 20 August 2017, https://unama.unmissions.org/unama-human-rights-report-mass-killings-mirza-olang.
- ^ Danielle Ogbeche, “Kill christians, target churches not mosques – New Boko Haram leader, Al-Barnawi”, Daily Post Nigeria, 4 August 2016, http://dailypost.ng/2016/08/04/kill-christians-target-churches-not-mosques-new-boko-haram-leader-al-barnawi/.
- ^ AP, “ISIS vows more attacks on Egypt’s Christians”, Catholic Herald, 20 February 2017, http://www.catholicherald.co.uk/news/2017/02/20/isis-vows-more-attacks-on-egypts-christians/.
- ^ Ahmed Aboulenein, “Egypt’s Christians flee Sinai amid Islamic State killing spree”, Reuters, 24 February 2017, https://www.reuters.com/article/us-egypt-violence/egypts-christians-flee-sinai-amid-islamic-state-killing-spree-idUSKBN1632BF.
- ^ “Middle East’s Christians are dwindling, despite deep roots,” Times of Israel, 8 July 2018, https://www.timesofisrael.com/middle-easts-christians-are-dwindling-despite-deep-roots/.
- ^ Roy Greenslade, “Taliban threaten Afghan TV journalists with ‘elimination’”, Guardian, 14 October 2015, https://www.theguardian.com/media/greenslade/2015/oct/14/taliban-threaten-afghan-tv-journalists-with-elimination.
- ^ “Kabul TV station defiantly resumes broadcasting moments after Isis attack ends”, Guardian, 7 November 2017, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/nov/07/gunmen-attack-kabul-tv-station-after-explosion.
- ^ “Lion Cubs of ISIL: Children of the Caliphate”, Al Jazeera, 25 October 2017, https://www.aljazeera.com/programmes/witness/2017/10/lion-cubs-isil-children-caliphate-171023104745430.html.
- ^ “Education in Africa”, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation, last modified 28 February 2018, http://uis.unesco.org/en/topic/education-africa.
- ^ “More than half of all schools remain closed in Borno State, epicentre of the Boko Haram crisis in northeast Nigeria”, United Nations Children’s Fund, 29 September 2017, https://www.unicef.org/media/media_100953.html.
- ^ Friday Olokor, “Boko Haram attacks: 70 lecturers quit UNIMAID”, PUNCH, 6 August 2017, http://punchng.com/boko-haram-attacks-70-lecturers-quit-unimaid/.
- ^ “Pakistan Hospital Blast Kills At Least 70”, Sky News, 8 August 2016, https://news.sky.com/story/at-least-53-killed-in-pakistan-hospital-blast-10527560.
- ^ Daniel Egiegba Agbiboa, “The Ongoing Campaign of Terror in Nigeria: Boko Haram versus the State”, Stability: International Journal of Security and Development 52, no. 2 (October 2013), https://www.stabilityjournal.org/articles/10.5334/sta.cl/.
- ^ For a mapping of the journeys to militancy of prominent jihadis from the Middle East and Africa, see Ahmed, Comerford and El-Badawy, Milestones to Militancy.
- ^ Avraham Ben Adam, “Al Shabaab Activates Assassination Squads for Asymmetric Warfare”, Strategic Intelligence, 23 March 2015, https://intelligencebriefs.com/al-shabaab-activates-assassination-squads-for-asymmetric-warfare/.
- ^ Abdi Sheikh, “Somalia’s al Shabaab denounces ex-spokesman as apostate who could be killed”, Reuters, 16 January 2018, https://uk.reuters.com/article/uk-somalia-insurgency/somalias-al-shabaab-denounces-ex-spokesman-as-apostate-who-could-be-killed-idUKKBN1F50IN.
- ^ Ibid.