- ^ This paper uses data from various sources and with different definitions. Usually, Israeli data are used in sections that examine the Israeli perspective, Palestinian data for the Palestinian perspective, and Jordanian and Egyptian data for those countries’ perspectives. For certain analyses, the paper uses international sources. Although in most cases all data sources show similar trends and magnitudes for the same data series, the figures for specific years and flows vary as a result of differences in definitions, gaps in collection, and recording of trade and other data. In certain cases, where trade data reflect partial registration of trade flows, the paper uses the more complete balance of payments where available, and trade data where there is no other source. For example, for overall Israeli-Palestinian trade in goods and services, the paper uses balance-of-payment figures, but for more specific analyses of Palestinian trade flows, registered trade data are the only available source.
- ^ Author’s calculations based on Israel Central Bureau of Statistics, “Monthly Bulletin of Statistics” (http://www.cbs.gov.il/publications18/yarhon0418/pdf/g2.pdf) and “Monthly Bulletin of Foreign Trade” (http://www.cbs.gov.il/www/fr_trade/td1.pdf).
- ^ Estimates are as per the definitions used in Israeli balance-of-payments statistics. Trade in goods includes diamonds. Additionally, trade with the PA is included in the balance-of-payment figures. Trade in services includes workers’ remittances and compensation. Income from interest and other payments are excluded. Indirect exports and imports to the GCC and other Arab countries were estimated by the author.
- ^ This paper includes labour exports (workers’ remittances and compensation) as part of Israel’s import figures from the PA, and as part of Egypt’s and Jordan’s figures of exports of services. Although workers’ remittances and compensation are technically registered differently in the balance of payments, this paper includes them as part of exports of services (as a separate item) because of their critical importance as a balancing export item for all three of these countries. The term “non-factor services” is used where needed to differentiate between exports of regular services (tourism, transport and so on) and export of labour, which is the export of factor services (shorthand for “production factor services”).
- ^ Yossi Zeira et al., “The Economic Costs of the Conflict to Israel: The Burden and Potential Risks”, in Economics and Politics in the Israeli Palestinian Conflict, ed. Arie Arnon and Saeb Bamya (Beersheba: The AIX Group, 2015), http://www.bgu.ac.il/~arnona/aixbook2015_FINALLLLL.pdf.
- ^ Ibid.
- ^ Karim Nashashibi, Yitzhak Gal and Bader Rock, “Palestinian-Israeli Economic Relations: Trade and Economic Regime”, Office of the Quartet Representative, 2015, http://www.quartetoffice.org/files/image/report.pdf. World Bank estimates in “Economic Monitoring Report to the Ad Hoc Liaison Committee”, September 2017, http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/westbankandgaza/publication/economic-monitoring-report-to-the-ad-hoc-liaison-committee-september-2017. See also detailed analyses in RAND Corporation, “The costs of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict”, 2015, https://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/research_reports/RR700/RR740-1/RAND_RR740-1.pdf.
- ^ Author’s calculations based on Palestinian balance-of-payments statistics 2016 (http://www.pcbs.gov.ps/Downloads/book2340.pdf), Palestinian foreign-trade statistics 2016 (http://www.pcbs.gov.ps/Downloads/book2287.pdf) and Israeli balance-of-payment statistics (http://www.cbs.gov.il/publications18/yarhon0418/pdf/g2.pdf).
- ^ Author’s calculations based on Palestinian balance-of-payments statistics and trade statistics (http://www.pcbs.gov.ps/Downloads/book2340.pdf and http://www.pcbs.gov.ps/Downloads/book2287.pdf).
- ^ The difference between Palestinian statistics and Israeli figures mirrors mainly unrecorded trade, which is not amended in Israeli figures.
- ^ Figure 7 is based on Jordanian external-trade statistics. There are some differences with Israeli external-trade statistics figures that reflect differences in definitions and registration methods. Nevertheless, the magnitudes are similar. Jordan’s imports of goods were $30 million in 2016 according to Jordanian figures and $49 million according to Israeli figures.
- ^ In addition to the $45 million registered in Jordanian trade statistics as re-exports to Israel, about $200 million pass from the GCC countries to Israel through Jordanian free zone areas, in which goods enter and are re-exported without the intervention of customs authorities. An additional $200–250 million is imported to Israel from GCC countries through Turkey, Cyprus and other countries.
- ^ Author’s calculations. The difference between Israeli import figures and Jordanian exports figures reflects goods shipped from the GCC countries in transit via Jordan without entering Jordan’s customs area.
- ^ Figures of trade in goods with Israel are taken from external-trade statistics, while total Jordanian trade data are from balance-of-payment statistics. Import figures in the balance-of-payment statistics do not include freight and insurance costs or custom duties. These figures are lower than external-trade database figures, which do include freight and insurance costs. The freight and insurance costs are included in the non-factor services account of the balance of payment (and hence must be deducted from the goods import figures to avoid double counting these costs). Israeli trade statistics show slightly different figures, reflecting minor differences in definitions and registration methods, but the magnitudes are the same. Figures of trade in services with Israel are the author’s estimates.
- ^ That is expected to change as of 2019–2020, when Egyptian imports of gas from Israel are expected to start.
- ^ Figures as per the Egyptian balance-of-payment and trade statistics. Israeli trade statistics show slightly higher figures, reflecting minor differences in definitions and registration methods, but the magnitudes remain similarly insignificant. Figures of trade in services with Israel are the author’s estimates. Total Egyptian export and import figures are for the 2016–2017 Egyptian financial year (Central Bank of Egypt). Egyptian-Israeli trade in goods figures are for the 2016 calendar year (WITS database).