Vision and Strategy
A Clear Vision
Data and Analysis
Four Case Studies
- ^ The research in this report was first published in the Africa Agriculture Status Report 2018 of the Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA). The present report may be cited provided reference is also made to “Africa Agriculture Status Report 2018: Catalyzing Government Capacity to Drive Agricultural Transformation”, Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa, 2018, https://agra.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/AASR-2018.pdf.
- ^ “FAO Statistics”, United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO), accessed June 2018, http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#data.
- ^ The CAADP and Malabo Declaration set targets for each African country to allocate 10 per cent of public expenditure to agriculture, end hunger by 2025 and halve poverty by 2025 through, in part, average annual growth in agricultural productivity of 6 per cent. “Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP)”, Office of the United Nations Special Adviser on Africa, http://www.un.org/en/africa/osaa/peace/caadp.shtml. “Malabo Declaration on Accelerated Agricultural Growth and Transformation for Shared Prosperity and Improved Livelihoods”, African Union, 17 June 2015, https://au.int/en/documents/20150617-2.
- ^ “FAO Statistics”, FAO.
- ^ Ibid.
- ^ “World Population Prospects 2017”, United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division, 2017, accessed June 2018, https://population.un.org/wpp/.
- ^ “Africa Agriculture Status Report 2018”, AGRA.
- ^ Admasu Shiferaw, “Productive Capacity and Economic Growth in Ethiopia”, United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, CDP background paper 34, 2017. Najib Akesbi, “A new strategy for Moroccan agriculture: The Green Morocco Plan”, New Medit 11, no. 2 (2012): 12–23.
- ^ Martin Plaut, “The legacy of Meles Zenawi”, Review of African Political Economy 39, no. 134 (December 2012): 645–654, https://www.researchgate.net/publication/262899644_The_legacy_of_Meles_Zenawi.
- ^ Shiferaw, “Productive Capacity and Economic Growth in Ethiopia”.
- ^ Sunil Sanghvi, Rupert Simons and Roberto Uchoa, “Four lessons for transforming African agriculture”, McKinsey, April 2011, https://www.mckinsey.com/industries/public-sector/our-insights/four-lessons-for-transforming-african-agriculture.
- ^ “Inaugural Biennial Review Report of the African Union Commission on the Implementation of the Malabo Declaration on Accelerated Agricultural Growth and Transformation for Shared prosperity and Improved Livelihoods”, African Union Commission, 2018.
- ^ “Portfolio Performance Report Annual Performance Review 2014 – 2015: Asia and the Pacific Region”, vol. 1 (August 2015), International Fund for Agricultural Development.
- ^ Kartik Akileswaran, Antoine Huss, Dan Hymowitz and Jonathan Said, The Jobs Gap: How to Make Inclusive Growth Work in Africa, Tony Blair Institute for Global Change, 2016, https://institute.global/insight/governance/jobs-gap-making-inclusive-growth-work-africa
- ^ Milo Vandemoortele and Kate Bird, “Progress in Economic Conditions: Sustained Success Against the Odds in Mauritius”, Overseas Development Institute, 2012, https://www.odi.org/publications/5184-progress-economic-conditions-mauritius-success-against-odds.
- ^ Alejandro Nin-Pratt, “Inputs, productivity, and agricultural growth in Africa south of the Sahara”, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) discussion paper 0143, 2012. Nin-Pratt reports that agricultural output per worker grew by 2 per cent between 2001 and 2012, compared with 0.6 per cent growth in the 1990s and no growth in the 1970s and 1980s. Lars Moller, “Ethiopia’s great run: The growth acceleration and how to pace it”, World Bank, 2012, http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/693561467988949839/Ethiopia-s-great-run-the-growth-acceleration-and-how-to-pace-it. Shiferaw, “Productive Capacity and Economic Growth in Ethiopia”.
- ^ Dani Rodrik and Arvind Subramanian, “From ‘Hindu Growth’ to Productivity Surge: The Mystery of the Indian Growth Transition”, National Bureau of Economic Research working paper 10376, March 2004, https://www.nber.org/papers/w10376.pdf. We recognise that the broader economic transformation in India benefited from the Green Revolution that started with Agriculture Minister Chidambaram Subramaniam’s crucial decision in 1965 to defy large and powerful opposition by importing significant amounts of Mexipak high-yield wheat, initially for use in selected lead districts. This, plus significant changes in fertiliser and irrigation policy, and with the release of IR-8 and later IR-20 rice, transformed Indian agricultural productivity in the 1960s and 1970s, and served as a precursor to broader economic transformation in the 1990s.
- ^ The examples described are cases in which various initiatives have shown some positive results in helping or starting to help governments move to a place where they can drive an agricultural transformation agenda. They do not necessarily indicate that agricultural transformation happened there.
- ^ Akileswaran, Huss, Hymowitz and Said, The Jobs Gap.
- ^ Kate Bird, Tali Diamant, Ursula Grant and Kate Higgins, “An integrated approach to Aid for Trade: Cambodia Trade Sector Wide Approach”, Case Study by Overseas Development Institute, 2019, https://www.odi.org/publications/4532-integrated-approach-aid-trade-cambodia-trade-sector-wide-approach-swap.
- ^ “Southern Agricultural Growth Corridor of Tanzania”, SAGCOT, accessed June 2018, http://sagcot.co.tz/index.php/the-team/.
- ^ “Burkina Faso – Appraisal Report – Bagre Growth Pole Support Project”, African Development Bank, 2015, https://www.afdb.org/en/documents/document/burkina-faso-appraisal-report-bagre-growth-pole-support-project-papcb-05-2015-52632/. “Senegal Compact”, Millennium Challenge Corporation, accessed June 2018, https://www.mcc.gov/where-we-work/program/senegal-compact.
- ^ “Malawi Innovation Challenge Fund”, Imani Development, accessed June 2018, http://imanidevelopment.com/malawi-innovation-challenge-fund-portfolio/.
- ^ “The world’s two largest cocoa producers want you to buy their chocolate, not just their beans” Quartz Africa, 12 May 2017, https://qz.com/981562/ghana-ivory-coast-are-marketing-more-chocolate-to-the-world/.
- ^ “Wienco”, Global Agriculture and Food Security Programme, accessed June 2018, http://www.gafspfund.org/content/wienco.
- ^ “Investment Portfolio”, Phatisa, accessed June 2018, https://www.phatisa.com/portfolio/aaf-portfolio/.
- ^ “Northern Zambia Agricultural Hub”, Agdevco, accessed June 2018, https://www.agdevco.com/our-investments/by-investment/NORTHERN-ZAMBIA-AGRICULTURAL-HUB-NZAH.
- ^ “How Nigeria’s Agricultural Transformation Agenda Is Changing the Status Quo”, Ventures Africa, 23 September 2014, http://venturesafrica.com/how-nigerias-agricultural-transformation-agenda-is-changing-the-status-quo/.
- ^ “Malawi Oil Seed Transformation Project”, United Kingdom Department for International Development, accessed June 2018, http://www.most.mw/.
- ^ Tim Kelsall and Seiha Heng, “Not minding the gap: Unbalanced growth and the hybrid political settlement in Cambodia”, in Deals and Development: The Political Dynamics of Growth Episodes, ed. Lant Pritchett, Kunal Sen and Eric Werker (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017).
- ^ “Art of Delivery” series, Tony Blair Institute for Global Change, 2016, https://institute.global/insight/governance/collections/art-delivery. Matt Andrews, Lant Pritchett and Michael Woolcock, “Escaping capability traps through problem driven iterative adaptation”, Center for International Development, Harvard University, 2012, https://www.hks.harvard.edu/centers/cid/publications/faculty-working-papers/escaping-capability-traps-through-problem-driven-iterative-adaptation-pdia.
- ^ Mushtaq Khan, “Political Settlements and the Governance of Growth-Enhancing Institutions”, School for Oriental and African Studies draft paper in research paper series on growth-enhancing governance, 20 January 2011, http://eprints.soas.ac.uk/id/eprint/9968.
- ^ Ibid.
- ^ Ibid.
- ^ Lant Pritchett and Eric Werker, “Developing the Guts of a GUT (Grand Unified Theory): Elite Commitment and Inclusive Growth”, Effective States and Inclusive Development Research Centre working paper 16/12, 7 December 2012, https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2386617.
- ^ Ibid.
- ^ Robert Darko Osei, Charles Ackah, George Domfe and Michael Danquah, “Political settlements and structural change: Why growth has not been transformational in Ghana”, in Deals and Development: The Political Dynamics of Growth Episodes, ed. Lant Pritchett, Kunal Sen and Eric Werker (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017).
- ^ Atal Bihari Das and Dukhabandhu Sahoo, “Farmers’ educational level and agricultural productivity: a study of tribals of KBK districts of Odisha”, International Journal of Education Economics and Development 3, no. 4 (2012): 363–374. Eric Oduro-Ofori, Prince Aboagye and Naa Acquaye, “Effects of education on the agricultural productivity of farmers in the Offinso Municipality”, International Journal of Development Research 6, no. 9 (2015): 1951–1960. Steve Okpachu, Godwin Okpachu and Kate Obijesi, “The Impact of Education on Agricultural Productivity of Small Scale Rural Female Maize Farmers in Potiskum, Yobe State”, International Journal of Research in Agriculture and Food Sciences 2, no. 4 (2014).
- ^ Akileswaran, Huss, Hymowitz and Said, The Jobs Gap.
- ^ Ibid.
- ^ “Nigerian Incentive Based Risk Scheme for Agricultural Lending”, NIRSAL, accessed June 2018 https://www.nirsal.com/. Tahirou Abdoulaye, Arega Alene, Feleke Shiferaw and Tesfamicheal Wossen, “Productivity and welfare effects of Nigeria’s e-voucher-based input subsidy program”, World Development 97 (September 2017): 251–265.
- ^ Millennium Challenge Corporation, accessed June 2018, www.mcc.gov.
- ^ Ethiopian Agriculture Transformation Agency, accessed June 2018, http://www.ata.gov.et/.
- ^ Andrews, Pritchett and Woolcock, “Escaping capability traps”. “Art of Delivery”, Tony Blair Institute for Global Change.
- ^ Central Statistics Agency of Ethiopia, Government of Ethiopia.
- ^ Kassahun Berhanu, “The political economy of agricultural extension in Ethiopia: Economic growth and political control”, Futures Agriculture Consortium working paper 42, 2012, www.future-agricultures.org. Tom Lavers, “Land grab as a development strategy? The political economy of agricultural investment in Ethiopia”, Journal of Peasant Studies 39, no. 1 (2012): 105–132.
- ^ Berhanu, “The political economy of agricultural extension in Ethiopia”.
- ^ “Ethiopia Agriculture Transformation Agency Annual Report 2016–2017”, Ethiopian Agriculture Transformation Agency (EATA), 2017.
- ^ A statement of policy intent was adopted to this effect in 2006, followed by the Food and Agriculture Policy and Strategy in 2008, in which then Liberian President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf affirmed, “The sector remains the most viable, sustainable and renewable source of national income.” Such statements were repeated in public policy and international forums over the next ten years.
- ^ Nelson Kanneh, “Final review report of the Liberia Agricultural Sector Investment Plan 2010–2015”, 2017.
- ^ Most of this information was sourced from an interview with a consultant who worked on the plan.
- ^ “Green Morocco Plan Strategy (2016)”, Ministry of Agriculture and Maritime Fish, Kingdom of Morocco.
- ^ “Agriculture Development Agency”, Government of Morocco, accessed October 2018, http://www.ada.gov.ma/.
- ^ Sara Boettiger, Nicolas Denis and Sunil Sanghvi, “Successful agricultural transformations: Six core elements of planning and delivery”, McKinsey, December 2017, https://www.mckinsey.com/industries/chemicals/our-insights/successful-agricultural-transformations-six-core-elements-of-planning-and-delivery.
- ^ Abdelmajid Saidi and Mohammed Diouri, “Food self-sufficiency under the Green-Morocco Plan”, Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences 5 (2017): 33–40.
- ^ Fred Golooba-Mutebi and David Booth, “Bilateral cooperation and local power dynamics: The case of Rwanda”, Overseas Development Institute, 2013.
- ^ The Crop Intensification Programme was launched in 2008 with the main goals of increasing agricultural productivity in high-potential food crops and ensuring food security and self-sufficiency. It relies on land use consolidation, improved seed and fertiliser use, proximity extension service by proximity service providers, change in farmer behaviour and agriculture product marketing, among other activities.
- ^ Jean-Marie Byakweli and Fred Golooba-Mutebi, “Drivers of success for CAADP implementation: Rwanda case study”, report prepared for Firetail, 2013, https://www.firetail.co.uk.
- ^ “Analysis of Rwanda agriculture expenditure”, United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisation, 2018.
- ^ Bruno Versailles, “Rwanda: Establishing single project implementation units”, Overseas Development Institute, 2012.
- ^ Golooba-Mutebi and Booth, “Bilateral cooperation and local power dynamics”.
- ^ Ibid.
- ^ Boettiger, Denis and Sanghvi, “Successful agricultural transformations”.
- ^ “World Population Prospects 2017”, United Nations.