- ^ ‘Left-Right’ values are based on average responses to the following five questions, which we drew from the British Election Study. Higher agreement indicated left-wing values in the original question but we inverted the scale so that higher values indicate right-wing values. 1) Government should redistribute incomes, 2) Big business takes advantage of ordinary people, 3) Ordinary people do not get their fair share, 4) There is one law for the rich and one law for the poor, 5) Equal opportunities for ethnic minorities have gone too far. We drop questions for which respondents gave an answer ‘don’t know’ and average the remaining question responses.
- ^ Cultural conservatism is based on an open-closed values scale that averages responses to the following five questions, also drawn from the British Election Study. Higher agreement indicates more closed, culturally conservative values. 2) Young people today don’t respect traditional British values, 2) For some crimes, the death penalty is the most appropriate sentence,3) Equal opportunities for gays and lesbians have gone too far, 4) Immigration is bad for the economy, 5) Equal opportunities for ethnic minorities have gone too far. Analyses based on this open-closed scale produce similar results to a commonly used liberal-authoritarian values scale.
- ^ To give a sense of the magnitude of this loss among culturally conservative, left-wing voters, this group comprises 14.8% of our sample when weighted to reflect the population. While 34.2% of this group said that it voted for the Conservatives in 2019, only 16.9% said that it intended to vote for them in Spring 2022. With an electorate of just over 50 million voters in Great Britain and Ireland, this implies a potential loss of over a million voters, just in the culturally conservative, left-wing group.
- ^ The new cultural conservatism scale contains the following 10 questions, with higher agreement indicating that the respondent believes that the issue in question has gone too far: 1) Political correctness in society today, 2) Changes in society to take into account those who identify as neither male nor female, 3) Rights for people who were born male by identify as female and vice versa, 4) Action to tackle racism in society, 5) Teaching children about trans issues, 6) Efforts to remove historical statues, 7) Use of gender pronouns to take into account all gender types, 8) protests on racism and race like Black Lives Matter, 9) Removal of people from jobs for past offensive comments, 10) Criticism of the Union Jack.