What is populism
The state of global populism
Figure 1: Populism in power, 1990-2019
Figure 2: Type of populism in power, 1990-2019
Figure 3: Populism in Power 1990-2020
New populist leaders on the scene
The fall of populist governments
Populists in power, 1990-2019
- ^ See Jan-Werner Müller, What Is Populism? (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2016); Yascha Mounk, The People vs. Democracy: Why Our Freedom is in Danger and How to Save It (Harvard University Press, 2018); Cas Mudde and Cristóbal Rovira Kaltwasser, Populism: A Very Brief Introduction (Oxford University Press, 2017).
- ^ For more on how populism distorts democratic principles, see Nadia Urbinati, “Political theory of populism,” Annual Review of Political Science 22 (2019): 111-127.
- ^ See Benjamin Moffitt, “How to Perform Crisis: A Model for Understanding the Key Role of Crisis in Contemporary Populism,” Government and Opposition 50, no. 2 (2015): 189-217.
- ^ We used the Archigos database of global leaders to identify the effective leader of every country in every year. See H.E. Goemans, Kristian Skrede Gleditsch, and Giacomo Chiozza. “Introducing Archigos: A Data Set of Political Leaders,” Journal of Peace Research 46, no. 2 (2009): 269-283.
- ^ We include only those countries that have a Polity IV score of at least 6—a commonly-used threshold for coding democracy within political science.
- ^ For more information on how we developed this potential list, see the Appendix of our Populism in Power report.
- ^ Part of what makes populism unique is the coexistence of each of these components at the same time—the anti-elitism, the delegitimizing the political participation of the opposition, and the argument that the populist himself embodies the will of the people. So, when coding, the existence of one component alone is not sufficient to count in the database. This approach is in line with a recent review on how to measure populist attitudes, see Alexander Wuttke, Christian Schimpf, and Harald Schoen, “When the whole is greater than the sum of its parts: On the conceptualization and measurement of populist attitudes and other multidimensional constructs,” American Political Science Review, forthcoming.
- ^ Benton, Allyson and Andrew Q. Philips, “Does the @realDonaldTrump Really Matter to Financial Markets?” American Journal of Political Science 64, no. 1 (2020): 169-190.
- ^ Setting the data up in this way—looking at democracy levels when a leader initially takes office—enables us to evaluate what happens when populist leaders are elected to office.
- ^ Andrews-Lee, Caitlin, “The Revival of Charisma: Experimental Evidence from Argentina and Venezuela,” Comparative Political Studies 52, no. 5 (2019): 687-719.
- ^ Venezuela’s Nicolás Maduro is an exception. We include the Maduro regime in the database as he assumed power after the death of Chávez in 2013, so it can be seen as one long spell of populism in the country.