Figure 3 – Countries that have introduced one or more foreign-policy measures to integrate tech
Figure 5 – Countries that have appointed a dedicated tech diplomat
Figure 7 – Breakdown of the 19 countries in our study with dedicated ambassadors, by primary focus area
Figure 9 – Breakdown of the 19 countries in our study with dedicated ambassadors, by background
Figure 10 – Countries that appointed a dedicated office or team within foreign-affairs ministries
Figure 12 – Breakdown of mandates of dedicated tech offices or teams of 17 countries in our study
Figure 14 – Location breakdown of dedicated offices or teams of 17 countries in our study
Figure 15 – Countries that have created a dedicated tech foreign-policy strategy
- ^ These countries are Australia, Austria, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Israel, Japan, Germany, Kazakhstan, Lithuania, Malta, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovenia, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.
- ^ While the formal titles of ambassadors or envoys may differentiate between cyber, digital or tech focus areas, for ease of discussion we will use the blanket term “tech diplomats” to cover the entire conceptual spectrum. For the purposes of this report, tech diplomats will be defined as diplomatic personnel affiliated with foreign-affairs ministries or departments, carrying the title of ambassador or special envoy, appointed specifically to lead work on technology-, digital- or cyber-related foreign policies and strategies of states, with or without the support of a formal team or office.
- ^ For the purposes of the report, a dedicated entity is defined as an office, department or other team housed within a ministry of foreign affairs (but not necessarily staffed only from there) that owns technology-, digital- or cyber-related foreign-policy strategy and decisions, or is otherwise dedicated to supporting the tech and foreign-policy work of the ministry.
- ^ For example, the Attorney General’s Department, Department of Defence, and the Department of Industry, Science, Energy and Resources
- ^ Given the challenge of determining what measures have come first in select countries based solely on publicly available data, it is sometimes difficult to determine what countries that sport both an ambassador and entity prioritised.
- ^ For the purposes of this analysis, strategies will be defined as government documents that outline the values, interests and policy priorities of states within the domain of technology and foreign policy, and give a description of the proposed means of achieving them.
- ^ While our analysis focuses on states with a dedicated, standalone technology foreign-policy strategy, and omits those who chose either to mainstream technology into their existing foreign-policy strategies or to include foreign-policy considerations in their cybersecurity strategies, we have included notable examples in Figure 16 for illustrative purposes.
- ^ For a different classification, see https://www.diplomacy.edu/topics/digital-foreign-policy/