- ^ District-level data is available from the Austrian Ministry of the Interior at http://wahl16.bmi.gv.at/. Data used in this analysis is current as of October 17.
- ^ For detailed data, see: http://www.sora.at/themen/wahlverhalten/wahlanalysen/nrw17.html.
- ^ The FPÖ now has the highest share of working-class voters among Austrian parties, mirroring trends in Germany.
- ^ Austrian pollsters usually distinguish between immigration and integration. The former category inquires about migration levels, border security, and rules for asylum seekers. The latter category focuses on the entitlements and responsibilities of migrants that are already in Austria. For detailed survey data, see: http://www.gfk.com/fileadmin/user_upload/dyna_content/AT/PM_2016/GfK__Charts_Challenges_of_Nations_2016_Austria.pdf
- ^ Islam has long been a feature in Austrian national security discussions, with frequent references to the siege of Vienna in 1683 and ominous warnings about the “Islamisation” of Europe.
- ^ There is considerable evidence that the strength of the ÖVP has more to do with the candidate Kurz than with his party’s platform. Throughout the campaign – widely seen as the ugliest in Austria’s recent history –, Kurz cast himself as someone who could break up the stale consensus of mainstream politics. He is now on track to become Europe’s youngest head of government at age 31.
- ^ The correlations between populist sympathies and great skepticism of norms and institutions is robust across national contexts: It characterises most populist parties in Europe.