Where Did We Go Wrong?
A Way Forward
- ^ Associated Press, “U.S. Participation in Major Wars,” Fox News.com, November 25, 2006 at: https://www.foxnews.com/printer_friendly_wires/2006Nov25/0,4675,USWarsHowLong,00.html
- ^ https://www.statista.com/statistics/1075849/total-us-war-costs-war-terror-category/
- ^ https://www.statista.com/statistics/1009819/total-us-military-fatalities-in-american-wars-1775-present/
- ^ See Neta C. Crawford, “Costs Of War: Human Cost of the Post-9/11 Wars: Lethality and the Need for Transparency,” Watson Institute International & Public Affairs, Brown University, at: https://watson.brown.edu/costsofwar/files/cow/imce/papers/2018/Human%20Costs%2C%20Nov%208%202018%20CoW.pdf
- ^ “Foreign Terrorist Organizations,” Bureau of Counterterrorism, U.S. Department of State. See also Tony Blair Institute for Global Change, Violent Islamist Extremism: A Global Problem, September 13, 2018, pp. 9 & 13-14 at: https://institute.global/insight/co-existence/violent-islamist-extremism-global-problem and Seth G. Jones, et al., The Evolution of the Salafi-Jihadist Threat: Current and Future Challenges from the Islamic State, Al-Qaeda, and Other Groups (Washington, DC: CSIS Transnational Threats Project, November 2018). p. iv at https://www.csis.org/analysis/evolution-salafi-jihadist-threat, which both use different metrics to arrive at the same general conclusion of a net increase of Salafi-Jihadi terrorists since 9/11.
- ^ Quoted in Hamid Mir, “Many outside America want an end to the policies that may produce more bin Ladens,” The Economic Times (Mumbai), May 3, 2011 at: https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/politics-and-nation/many-outside-america-want-an-end-to-the-policies-that-may-produce-more-bin-ladens/articleshow/8150982.cms
- ^ “President Bush's address to a joint session of Congress and the nation,” Washington Post, September 20, 2001 at: https://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/nation/specials/attacked/transcripts/bushaddress_092001.html
- ^ See for instance, Gary Bernsten and Ralph Pezzullo, Jawbreaker: The Attack on Bin Laden And Al-Qaeda: A Personal Account By The CIA’s Key Field Commander (New York: Crown, 2005); Gary Schroen, First In: An Insider’s Account of How the CIA Spearheaded the War on Terror in Afghanistan (New York: Presidio, 2005); and, Doug Stanton, Horse Soldiers: The Extraordinary Story Of A Band of U.S. Soldiers Who Rode To Victory In Afghanistan (New York: Scribner, 2009.
- ^ Peter Bergen, The Longest War: The Enduring Conflict Between America and Al-Qaeda (New York: Free Press, 2011), pp. 80-85; and, Seth G. Jones, In The Graveyard Of Empires: America’s War In Afghanistan (New York: W.W. Norton, 2009), pp. 94-95
- ^ Colonel C.E. Callwell, Small Wars: Their Principles And Practice (Lincoln, NB: Bison Books, 1996), pp. 32-33 57-58, & 85-88.
- ^ Specialist Sal Giunta quoted in Elizabeth Rubin, "Captain Kearney's Quagmire," New York Times, 24 February 2008.
- ^ Jones, In The Graveyard Of Empires, p.xiv.
- ^ The building where my office was in September 2001 looked down on the southern half of the Pentagon and I recall the fire still burning there. This dovetails with the eyewitness account in Patrick Creed and Rick Newman, Firefight: Inside The Battle To Save The Pentagon On 9/11 (New York: Ballantine Books, 2008), p. 404. See also, National Public Radio,” Battling the Pentagon Blaze After 9/11,” Fresh Air, May 22, 2008 at: https://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=90696597.
- ^ Richard A. Clarke, Against All Enemies: Inside America’s War on Terror (New York: Free Press, 2004), pp. 30-31.
- ^ “We’re like the Pacific theatre in World War II,” a senior U.S. Army officer on the planning staff at Regional Command—East, 82nd Airborne Division, Bagram Air Base, complained to the author on a visit to Afghanistan in March 2008. “We will get more resources after we defeat Berlin.” Quoted in Bruce Hoffman and Seth Jones, “Cell Phones in the Hindu Kush,” National Interest, Number 96 (July/August 2008), p. 45
- ^ See Jane Mayer, The Dark Side: The Inside Story of How The War On Terror Turned Into A War On American Ideals (New York: Doubleday, 2008); and, Tara McKelvey, Monstering: Inside America’s Policy Of Secret Interrogations And Torture In The Terror War (New York: Carol & Graf, 2007).
- ^ See, for instance, U.S. National Intelligence Council, “Declassified Key Judgments of the National Intelligence Estimate ‘Trends in Global Terrorism: Implications for the United States’,” April 2006 accessed at: http://www.dni.gov/press_releases/Declassified_NIE_Key_Judgments.pdf; U.S. National Intelligence Council, “The Terrorist Threat to the US Homeland,” July 2007, accessed at http://www.dni.gov/press_releases/20070717_release.pdf; Remarks by Mr. Ted Gistaro National Intelligence Officer for Transnational Threats, “Assessing the Fight Against Al-Qa’ida,” The Washington Institute's Special Policy Forum, The Washington Institute for Near East Policy, Washington, DC, 12 August 2008 accessed at: http://www.dni.gov/speeches/20080812_speech.pdf; and, Director’s Remarks at the Atlantic Council, Washington, DC, Remarks by Central Intelligence Agency Director Michael Hayden, “Current State of al-Qaeda,” 13 November 2008, accessed at: http://www.acus.org/http%3A/%252Fwww.acus.org/event_blog/cia-director-event-transcript.
- ^ “Declaration of War Against the Americans Occupying the Land of the Two Holy Places: A Message from Usama bin Muhammad bin Laden Unto His Muslim Brethren All Over the World Generally, and in the Arab Peninsula,” Azzam Publications translation in Yonah Alexander and Michael S. Swetnam, Usama bin Laden’s al-Qaida: Profile of a Terrorist Network (Ardsley, NY: Transnational Publishers, 2001), Appendix 1 A, pp. 1-2, 8 & 19.
- ^ Among Azzam’s seminal books on this subject are: In Defence of Muslim Lands: The First Obligation after Faith (London: Maktabah Publications, 2002); Join the Caravan (London: Maktabah Publications, 2001); and, The Lofty Mountain (London: Maktabah Publications, no date).
- ^ MEMRI, “Special Dispatch—Jihad and Terrorism Studies,” April 11 2003, no. 493 quoting http://www.cubezero.nt/vhsvideo/imagis/?subject=2&rec=1043. Accessed April 13, 2003.
- ^ “Declaration of War Against the Americans Occupying the Land of the Two Holy Places,” in Alexander and Swetnam, Usama bin Laden’s al-Qaida, Appendix 1 A, p. 11.
- ^ Full transcript of bin Laden’s speech, Al Jazeera, November 1, 2004 at https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2004/11/1/full-transcript-of-bin-ladins-speech
- ^ Quoted in Vernon Loeb, “Rumsfeld Seeks Better Intelligence on Iraqi Insurgents,” Washington Post, December 11, 2003.
- ^ Quoted in Eric Schmitt, “Iraq-Bound Troops Confront Rumsfeld Over Lack of Armor,” New York Times, December 8, 2004.
- ^ Donald H. Rumsfeld, “Transforming the Military,” Foreign Affairs, vol. 81, no. 3 (May/June 2002); https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/2002-05-01/transforming-military; and, Bob Woodward, Plan Of Attack (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2004), p. 41.
- ^ Quoted in Woodward, Plan Of Attack, p. 41.
- ^ “George W. Bush Declares Mission Accomplished,” History.com, at: https://www.history.com/speeches/george-w-bush-declares-mission-accomplished
- ^ Quoted in Colin S. Gray, Fighting Talk: Forty Maxims on War, Peace, and Strategy (Washington, D.C.: Potomac, 2007), p. 69.
- ^ Quoted in “U.S. faltering in Afghanistan,” CNN.com, September 9, 2004 at: http://www.cnn.com/2004/WORLD/meast/09/09/zawahiri.tape/index.html”Al-Zawahiri
- ^ Quoted in “Purported al-Qaida Tape Warns of Attacks,” Associated Press, December 19, 2003. See also, Andrew Sullivan, “Bush’s Strategy in Iraq—Flypaper,” September 6, 2003 at: https://freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/980032/posts
- ^ Quoted in “Purported al-Qaida Tape Warns of Attacks.”
- ^ See David Ignatius, “Afghanistan is Biden’s first big foreign policy headache,” Washington Post, February 4, 2021 at: https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/afghanistan-is-bidens-first-big-foreign-policy-headache/2021/02/04/133e697a-6735-11eb-886d-5264d4ceb46d_story.html; Oren Lieberman, Zachary Cohen and Kylie Atwood, “Biden has no good options on Afghanistan with deadline for troop withdrawal looming,” CNN.com, February 14, 2021 at: https://www.cnn.com/2021/02/14/politics/biden-afghanistan-deadline-looming/index.html; and, Thomas Gibbons-Neff and Taimoor Shah, Taliban Close In on Afghan Cities, Pushing the Country to the Brink,” New York Times, February 15, 2021 at: https://www.nytimes.com/2021/02/15/world/asia/the-taliban-close-in-on-afghan-cities-pushing-the-country-to-the-brink.html
- ^ Quoted in Woodward, Plan Of Attack, p. 150.
- ^ “Read the full transcript of ABC News’ 3rd Democratic debate,” ABC News, September 13, 2019 at: https://abcnews.go.com/US/read-full-transcript-abc-news-3rd-democratic-debate/story?id=65587810; and, “Editorials: Platitudes, not plans,” Washington Post, September 14, 2019.
- ^ Reuters, “Trump to West Point Grads: ‘We are Ending the Era of Endless Wars,” Voice of America, June 13, 2020 at: https://www.voanews.com/usa/us-politics/trump-west-point-grads-we-are-ending-era-endless-wars
- ^ Joseph R. Biden, Jr., “Why America Must Lead Again: Rescuing U.S. Foreign Policy After Trump,” Foreign Affairs, vol. 99, no. 2 (March/April 2020) at: https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/united-states/2020-01-23/why-america-must-lead-again
- ^ Henry A. Kissinger, “The Viet Nam Negotiations,” Foreign Affairs, vol 47, no. 2 (January 1969), p. 215.
- ^ See Major General Michael T. Flynn, Captain Matt Pottinger, Paul D. Batchelor, Voices Form The Field: Fixing Intel: A Blueprint For Making Intelligence Relevant In Afghanistan (Washington, DC: Center for a New American Security, January 2010), p. 7 accessed at http://www.cnas.org/files/documents/publications/AfghanIntel_Flynn_Jan2010_code507_voices.pdf
- ^ Resolution 660 (1990)adopted by the Security Council at its 2932nd meeting, August 2, 1990 at: https://digitallibrary.un.org/record/94220?ln=en; Resolution 678 (1990)adopted by the Security Council at its 2933rd meeting, November 29, 1990 https://digitallibrary.un.org/record/102245?ln=en; and, Sean D. Murphy, Humanitarian Intervention: The United Nations In An Evolving World Order (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1996), pp. 185-186.
- ^ Tina Brown, “Death by Error,” Washington Post, May 19, 2005.
- ^ Speeches at Kansas State University, November 2007 and at the American Academy of Diplomacy in May 2008 quoted in “New DoD public affairs chief to focus on better communication,” The Gold Standard: Fort Knox, Kentucky, June 24, 2009 at: https://www.fkgoldstandard.com/content/new-dod-public-affairs-chief-focus-better-communication
- ^ Remarks as Delivered by Secretary of Defense Robert M. Gates to the Association of the United States Army, Washington, D.C., Wednesday, October 10, 2007 accessed at: http://www.defenselink.mil/speeches/speech.aspx?speechid=1181
- ^ Quoted in Jonah Goldberg, “Our Enemies Get a Vote,” National Review, May 29, 2013 at: https://www.nationalreview.com/2013/05/our-enemies-get-vote-jonah-goldberg/
- ^ Sean McFate, The New Rules Of War: Victory In The Age Of Durable Disorder (New York: William Morrow, 2019), p. 110.