Deadlier Than the Rest?
Religion: More Than Belief
Understanding Religion and Radicalisation
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- ^ It is common in ISIS groups to adopt the honorifics of Umm or Abu. In this case, the name translates as “Mother of Hussain the Briton”.
- ^ Alasdair MacIntrye, “Myth”, in Encyclopedia of Philosophy vol. 5, ed. Paul Edwards (New York: Macmillan, 1967), 435.
- ^ The terms “suicide bombing” and “martyrdom operations” are both value laden but widely understood. Some academics use the phrase “human bomber” to avoid the judgments implied in these terms. See Tricia Romano, “Why the Boston Marathon Bombers Could Have Been Women”, Dame, 29 April 2013, https://www.damemagazine.com/2013/04/29/why-boston-marathon-bombers-could-have-been-women/. The exclusion of ISIS is because most suicide-bomber attacks have been unreported for the last few years. In 2016, for example, ISIS reported on over 1,000 such attacks, none of which was said to have been carried out by women. Many thanks to Charlie Winter for noting this point.
- ^ Lindsay A. O’Rourke, “What’s Special about Female Suicide Terrorism?”, Security Studies 18, no. 4 (2009): 681–718.
- ^ Reed M. Wood and Jakana L. Thomas, “Women on the frontline”, Journal of Peace Research 54, no. 1 (2017): 31–46.
- ^ The term “clean skins” is used by security officials, counter-terrorism police and bureaucrats. It originally referred to an undercover operative who had no prior connections or history of dealing with the police or security services or the group they were meant to infiltrate, so that they were less likely to be suspected. It mutated to refer to those who joined radical groups and had no prior connection with them or the police. See “Changes in Modus Operandi of Islamic State (IS) Revisited”, Europol Public Information, November 2016, https://www.europol.europa.eu/sites/default/files/.../modus_operandi_is_revisited.pdf. See also David Kilcullen, The Blood Year: The unravelling of Western Counter Terrorism (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016), 204.
- ^ Divorce is not unusual; dropping out of university or not being interested in school is not unusual; and while a brother or father dying or being a victim of sexual abuse is tragic, these are not sufficiently distinctive to be causes. At best, as Andrew Silke and I have noted elsewhere, such events might lead to mortality salience (obsession with death). Our report is unusually contained in full in the Judgment of Hayden J in London Borough of Tower Hamlets v B  EWHC 1707. See also “Radicalisation and violent extremism – focus on women: How women become radicalised, and how to empower them to prevent radicalisation”, European Parliament Committee on Women’s Rights & Equality, December 2017, http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/STUD/2017/596838/IPOL_STU(2017)596838_EN.pdf.
- ^ Alejandro Beutel and Krystina Perez, “From WWI to ISIS, Using Shame and Masculinity in Recruitment Narratives”, START National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism, 1 June 2016, http://www.start.umd.edu/news/wwi-isis-using-shame-and-masculinity-recruitment-narratives.
- ^ Mia Bloom, “Women and Terrorism”, in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics, January 2017, http://politics.oxfordre.com/view/10.1093/acrefore/9780190228637.001.0001/acrefore-9780190228637-e-124.
- ^ Katherine E. Brown, “Muriel’s wedding: News media representations of Europe’s first female suicide terrorist”, European Journal of Cultural Studies 14, no. 6 (2011): 705–726; Maura Conway and Lisa McInerney, “What’s Love Got to Do with It? Framing ‘Jihad Jane’ in the US Press”, Media, War & Conflict 5, no. 1 (2012): 6–21; and Brigitte L. Nacos, “The Portrayal of Female Terrorists in the Media: Similar Framing Patterns in the News Coverage of Women in Politics and in Terrorism”, Studies in Conflict and Terrorism 28, no. 5 (2005): 435–451.
- ^ Beverley Milton-Edwards and Sumaya Attia, “Female terrorists and their role in jihadi groups”, Brookings Institution, 9 May 2017, https://www.brookings.edu/opinions/female-terrorists-and-their-role-in-jihadi-groups/.
- ^ Elizabeth Shakman Hurd, “Politics of secularism and IR”, E-International Relations, 18 November 2008, http://www.e-ir.info/2008/11/18/politics-of-secularism-and-ir/.
- ^ Anselm Rink and Kunaal Sharma, “The Determinants of Religious Radicalisation”, Journal of Conflict Resolution 62, no. 6 (2018): 1229–1261.
- ^ “The Gender Gap in Religion Around the World”, Pew Research Forum, 22 March 2016, http://www.pewforum.org/2016/03/22/the-gender-gap-in-religion-around-the-world/.
- ^ Matthew Francis and Kim Knott, “Are converts to Islam more likely to become extremists?”, Conversation, 28 March 2017, http://theconversation.com/are-converts-to-islam-more-likely-to-become-extremists-75164; Mia Bloom, “Female Suicide Bombers: a Global Trend”, Daedalus 136, no. 1 (2007): 36; Jocelyne Cesari, “Muslims in Europe and the Risk of Radicalisation”, in Jihadi Terrorism and the Radicalisation Challenge in Europe, ed. Rik Coolsaet (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2008): 103.
- ^ Emmanuel Karagiannis, “European Converts to Islam: Mechanisms of Radicalization”, Politics, Religion & Ideology 13, no. 1 (2012): 99–113.
- ^ Andrew H. Kydd and Barbara F. Walter, “The Strategies of Terrorism”, International Security 31, no. 1 (2006): 49–80; Monika G. Bartoszewicz, “Controversies of Conversions: The Potential Terrorist Threat of European Converts to Islam”, Perspectives on Terrorism 7, no. 3 (2013): 17–29, http://www.jstor.org/stable/26296937.
- ^ Michael Bonner, Jihad in Islamic History: Doctrines and Practice (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2008); and Hugh Kennedy, Caliphate: The History of an Idea (New York: Basic Books, 2016). See also Hugh Kennedy, The Caliphate: A Pelican Introduction (London: Penguin, 2016) for a discussion of the idea of a caliphate.
- ^ William T. Cavanaugh, The Myth of Religious Violence: Secular Ideology and the Roots of Modern Conflict (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009).
- ^ Jake Watson, Saher Selod and Nazli Kibria, “‘Let’s hope the Boston Marathon Bomber is a White American’: racialising Muslims and the politics of white identity”, in Identities (2018), https://doi.org/10.1080/1070289X.2017.1397964.
- ^ On converts generally, see also Amena Amer and Caroline Howarth, “Constructing and contesting threat: Representations of white British Muslims across British national and Muslim newspapers”, European Journal of Social Psychology 48, no. 5 (August 2018): 614–628, https://doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.2352.
- ^ For details refer to Jocelyne Cesari, The Oxford Handbook of European Islam (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014).
- ^ For a discussion of this occurring in the online world, see Katherine E. Brown and Elizabeth Pearson, “Social Media, the Online Environment and Terrorism”, in Routledge Handbook of Terrorism and Counter Terrorism, ed. Andrew Silke (Abingdon: Routledge, 2018).
- ^ Manni Crone, “Radicalization revisited: violence, politics and the skills of the body”, International Affairs 92, no. 3 (2016), https://www.chathamhouse.org/sites/default/files/publications/ia/inta92-3-05-crone.pdf.
- ^ Emile Durkheim, The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life (New York: The Free Press, 1982).
- ^ Paul Tillich, Dynamics of Faith (New York: HarperCollins, 1957).
- ^ Bryan S. Rennie, “The View of the Invisible World: Ninian Smart’s Analysis of the Dimensions of Religion and of Religious Experience”, The Bulletin of the Council of Societies for the Study of Religion 28, no. 3 (1999): 63–68, https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/69f1/26999a453f915703dad8ec496a969c9715d1.pdf.
- ^ Andrew Davies, “Women and Radicalisation II: Gendering Radicalisation Theory”, The University of Birmingham Cadbury Centre Blog on Religion in Politics and Public Life, 22 March 2018, https://blog.bham.ac.uk/cpur/2018/03/22/women-and-radicalisation-ii-gendering-radicalisation-theory/.
- ^ Katherine E. Brown, “Gender and the New Counter-Terrorism Strategy”, Connect Futures, 5 June 2018, https://www.connectfutures.org/gender-and-the-new-counter-terrorism-strategy/.