Female Violence and Masculinity
The Myth That Particular Men Pose a Problem
Why Seeing Gender As ‘More Than Women’ Matters
The Full Series
- See Dominic Casciani, “Was 2017 the Worst Year for UK Terrorism?”, BBC News, 3 January 2018, https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-42420358.
- Nadia Khomami, “How London Teenager Plotted Attacks with All-Female Terror Cell”, The Guardian, 4 June 2018, https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2018/jun/04/how-london-teenager-plotted-attacks-with-all-female-terror-cell.
- Philippa Eggert, "Women Fighters in the “Islamic State” and Al-Qaida in Iraq: A Comparative Analysis", Journal of International Peace and Organization 90, no.3-4, 2015: 363-380; Susan G. Mahan and Pamala L. Griset, Terrorism in Perspective, Third Edition (Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE Publications, Inc, 2013).
- Karen Jacques and Paul J. Taylor, "Female Terrorism: A Review", Terrorism and Political Violence 21, no. 3 (June 2009): 508, https://doi.org/10.1080/09546550902984042.
- Jacques and Taylor, "Female Terrorism", 508.
- Robin Simcox et al., "Islamist Terrorism: The British Connections", The Centre for Social Cohesion and the Henry Jackson Society, 2011.
- Elizabeth Pearson, "The Case of Roshonara Choudhry: Implications for Theory on Online Radicalization, ISIS Women, and the Gendered Jihad", Policy & Internet 8, no.1, 1 September 2015, https://doi.org/10.1002/poi3.101.
- Cook and Vale suggest that in Western Europe 1,023 women (17 per cent of the total) have travelled to Syria and Iraq to join ISIS, in Eastern Europe 1,396 women (23 per cent of the total), and in the UK, 145 women (17 per cent of the total). See Joana Cook and Gina Vale, "From Daesh to Diaspora: Tracing the Women and Minors of Islamic State", ICSR, 23 July 2018, http://icsr.info/2018/07/icsr-report-launch-daesh-diaspora-tracing-women-minors-islamic-state/.
- Michael Kimmel, "Almost All Violent Extremists Share One Thing: Their Gender", The Guardian, 8 April 2018, http://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/apr/08/violent-extremists-share-one-thing-gender-michael-kimmel.
- Katherine E Brown, "Gender and Counter-Radicalization: Women and Emerging Counter-Terror Measures", in Gender, National Security and Counter-Terrorism, ed. Jayne Huckerby and Margaret L. Satterthwaite (Abingdon, Oxon; New York: Routledge, 2013), 47.
- Joan Scott, "Gender: A Useful Category of Historical Analysis", The American Historical Review 91, No. 5 (December, 1986): 1053-1075.
- Laura Sjoberg and Caron E. Gentry, "Reduced to Bad Sex: Narratives of Violent Women from the Bible to the War on Terror", International Relations 22, no. 1 (March 2008): 6, https://doi.org/10.1177/0047117807087240.
- Some of the key texts include Michael Kimmel, Healing from Hate: How Young Men Get Into―and Out Of―Violent Extremism (Oakland, California: University of California Press, 2018); Michael S. Kimmel, "Globalization and Its Mal(e)Contents: The Gendered Moral and Political Economy of Terrorism", International Sociology 18, no. 3 (September 2003): 603–620, https://doi.org/10.1177/02685809030183008; Paul Higate, "Drinking Vodka from the “Butt-Crack”", International Feminist Journal of Politics 14, no. 4 (December 2012): 450–469, https://doi.org/10.1080/14616742.2012.726092; Randy Blazak, "“Getting It”: The Role of Women in Male Desistance From Hate Groups", in Home-Grown Hate: Gender and Organized Racism, ed. Abby L. Ferber (Routledge, 2004), 154; Raewyn W. Connell and James W. Messerschmidt, "Hegemonic Masculinity: Rethinking the Concept", Gender & Society 19, no. 6 (December 2005): 829–859, https://doi.org/10.1177/0891243205278639.
- Connell and Messerschmidt, "Hegemonic Masculinity".
- Joshua S. Goldstein, War and Gender: How Gender Shapes the War System and Vice Versa (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003).
- Kimmel, Healing from Hate, 20.
- Paul Higate, "Peacekeepers, Masculinities, and Sexual Exploitation", Men and Masculinities 10, no. 1 (1 July 2007): 114, https://doi.org/10.1177/1097184X06291896.
- See Mathieu Guidere, "Isis’ Politics of Sex", in Kalifat Des Terrors Interdisziplinäre Perspektiven Auf Den Islamischen Staat, ed. Martin Schmetz and Janusz Biene, Sicherheitspolitik-Blog Fokus (Sicherheitspolitik-Blog, 2015), 19–25, http://www.sicherheitspolitik-blog.de/files/2015/07/Kalifat-des-Terrors.pdf.
- For discussion of the potential threat posed see for instance Jessica Davis, "Women and Radical Islamic Terrorism: Planners, Perpetrators, Patrons?", The Canadian Institute of Strategic Studies, Strategic Link, no. 136 (May 2006): 3–4; Mia Bloom, Bombshell: The Many Faces of Women Terrorists (London: C Hurst & Co Publishers Ltd, 2011), ix.
- See both Nelly Lahoud, "The Neglected Sex: The Jihadis’ Exclusion of Women From Jihad", Terrorism and Political Violence 26, no.5 (February 2014): 1–23, https://doi.org/10.1080/09546553.2013.772511; Nelly Lahoud, "Can Women Be Soldiers of the Islamic State?", Survival 59, no. 1 (2 January 2017): 61–78, https://doi.org/10.1080/00396338.2017.1282675.
- Sara Khan and Tony McMahon, The Battle for British Islam: Reclaiming Muslim Identity from Extremism (London: Saqi Books, 2016), 52; See also Sayyid Qutb, Milestones (London: Islamic Book Service, 2006), 97–98.
- Charlie Winter, "Women of the Islamic State", The Quilliam Foundation, 2015, http://www.quilliamfoundation.org/wp/wp-content/uploads/publications/free/women-of-the-islamic-state3.pdf.
- Interview, “Saleha”, 2016.
- Elizabeth Pearson, "Why Female Suicide Bombers Mean the End of ISIS’s Caliphate Dream", Newsweek, 18 July 2017, http://www.newsweek.com/why-isis-female-suicide-bombers-mean-end-caliphate-dream-637892.
- See Charlie Winter and Devorah Margolin, "The Mujahidat Dilemma: Female Combatants and the Islamic State", CTC Sentinel 10, no. 7 (August 2017), https://ctc.usma.edu/v2/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/CTC-Sentinel_Vol10Iss7.pdf.
- With thanks to Dr Nelly Lahoud for a conversation in July 2018.
- Raewyn W. Connell, "Globalisation, Imperialism and Masculinities", in Handbook of Studies on Men and Masculinities, ed. Michael S. Kimmel, Jeff R. Hearn, and Robert W. Connell (Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE Publications, Inc, 2004), 73; Kimmel, "Globalization and Its Mal(e)Contents", 605; Robert Morrell and Sandra Swart, "Men in the Third World: Postcolonial Perspectives on Masculinity", in Handbook of Studies on Men & Masculinities (Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE Publications, Inc., 2005), 102–3, https://doi.org/10.4135/9781452233833.
- See Kimmel, Healing from Hate, 5. The term ‘radicalisation’ is controversial. Like ‘terrorism’ it is pejorative and contested. Governments have predominantly used it to describe pathways to Islamist extremism but it can describe any ideological ‘progression’ to either violence or extreme belief.
- Matthew Holehouse, "Woolwich Attack: Islamists’ Campaign to Recruit Street Gangs", Telegraph, 27 May 2013, https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/terrorism-in-the-uk/10082413/Woolwich-attack-Islamists-campaign-to-recruit-street-gangs.html.
- The English Defence League was founded in 2009 as a street movement, protesting Islam(ism) and was mainly white, male and working class.
- David Lammy, "Islamists, Gangs, the EDL - All Target Alienated Young Men", The Guardian, 24 May 2013, http://www.theguardian.com/uk/2013/may/24/islamists-gangs-edl-target-young-men.
- Terry A. Kupers, "Toxic Masculinity as a Barrier to Mental Health Treatment in Prison", Journal of Clinical Psychology 61, no. 6 (June 2005): 714, https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.20105.
- See for instance Paul Amar, "Middle East Masculinity Studies: Discourses of “Men in Crisis”, Industries of Gender in Revolution", Journal of Middle East Women’s Studies 7, no. 3 (2011): 36–70.
- Joel Busher, The Making of Anti-Muslim Protest: Grassroots Activism in the English Defence League (London ; New York, NY: Routledge, 2015), para. 51.
- Hilary Pilkington, Loud and Proud: Passion and Politics in the English Defence League (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2016), 37–38, http://www.oapen.org/search?identifier=607920.
- Jamie Bartlett and Mark Littler, "Inside the EDL", Demos, 2011, 18, http://www.demos.co.uk/publications/insidetheedl.
- Robert Ford and Matthew J. Goodwin, Revolt on the Right: Explaining Support for the Radical Right in Britain (Abingdon, Oxon; New York, NY: Routledge, 2014), 79.
- J. Treadwell and J. Garland, "Masculinity, Marginalization and Violence: A Case Study of the English Defence League", British Journal of Criminology 51, no. 4 (April 2011): 627–32, https://doi.org/10.1093/bjc/azr027; James Treadwell, "White Riot: The English Defence League and the 2011 English Riots", Criminal Justice Matters 87, no. 1 (1 March 2012): 37, https://doi.org/10.1080/09627251.2012.671016.
- Higate, "Peacekeepers, Masculinities, and Sexual Exploitation", 114.
- Raewyn W. Connell, "Preface", in Rethinking the Man Question: Sex, Gender and Violence in International Relations: 1, ed. Jane L. Parpart and Marysia Zalewski (London; New York: Zed Books, 2008), xii.