Figure 1 – Global contributors to climate change measured cumulatively in GtCO2e from 1751 to 2019
Risks Posed by the Global Response
Figure 2 – Energy use and CO2 emissions per capita versus GDP per capita
A Reliable Framework for Collaboration
- ^ https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2019/06/17/worlds-population-is-projected-to-nearly-stop-growing-by-the-end-of-the-century/
- ^ This is calculated as: 16x = 10,500/2,000$/person x 4/1.3 billion people.
- ^ https://www.afdb.org/en/cop25/climate-change-africa
- ^ https://www.afdb.org/en/documents/climate-change-impacts-africas-economic-growth
- ^ IPCC, “Mitigation Pathways Compatible with 1.5°C in the Context of Sustainable Development” (2018)
- ^ https://www.ft.com/content/9a11b08c-4fb3-49ec-8939-9d853745bfce
- ^ In Sierra Leone, this is Human Capital Development. In Ghana, Tanzania, Malawi and Mozambique, this is agro-led industrialisation.
- ^ This would mean, for example, continued support for gas exploration and production, and continued support for gas-fired power stations, so that African industry can grow with cheap, reliable, climate-resilient and round-the-clock power.
- ^ For example, pay for the additional design and space required for carbon capture, use and storage (CCUS) retrofitting where applicable.
- ^ https://www.energyforgrowth.org/blog/infographic-what-is-sub-saharan-africas-contribution-to-global-co2-emissions/
- ^ Global Climate Risk Index, Germanwatch (2021).
- ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-vqma0oRZE0
- ^ https://www.ft.com/content/91c54cf9-4545-4bfe-9445-92fbf048fbd9
- ^ Such as the EU’s Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism, which will be phased in from 2023. The mechanism will apply a levy on products imported into the region from countries that do not have a mechanism to price carbon into the cost of production. The levy will apply to energy- and carbon-intensive products such as fossil fuels, steel, aluminium and paper – building blocks of the industrial revolution in the developed world
- ^ https://www.iea.org/reports/net-zero-by-2050
- ^ An example of decoupling of economic growth and consumption emissions in 32 countries over the period 2005-2019 has been cited to state that this may prove feasible. See https://thebreakthrough.org/issues/energy/absolute-decoupling-of-economic-growth-and-emissions-in-32-countries But these 32 countries are either tax havens or nations that have first gone through carbon-intense manufacturing-based industrialisation, before offshoring their production emissions and evolving into service-sector economies.
- ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20100723223052/http:/www.physics.ohio-state.edu/~wilkins/energy/Resources/Essays/ngeo325.pdf.xpdf
- ^ https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.CON.FERT.ZS
- ^ This does not account for upstream methane leakages.
- ^ https://assets.cdcgroup.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/05/25111607/Decarbonising-Africas-grid-electricity.pdf
- ^ https://www.theguardian.com/business/2021/feb/25/uks-gas-power-plans-risk-derailing-climate-targets-thinktank-says
- ^ Assuming the additional energy available from the grid displaced the need to produce power in standalone diesel generators.
- ^ https://unfccc.int/sites/default/files/resource/climate-finance-roadmap-to-us100-billion.pdf
- ^ Using OECD data updated in May 2021, we found that $79.6 billion had been committed as climate finance in 2019, which deflating by the US CPI differential between 2019 and 2010, is (2010) $70 billion. OECD data accessed here: https://www.oecd.org/dac/financing-sustainable-development/development-finance-topics/climate-change.htm US CPI data accessed here: https://www.ons.gov.uk/economy/inflationandpriceindices/datasets/consumerpriceinflation
- ^ US Department of Agriculture, “US Forest Facts and Historical Trends” (2001). https://www.fia.fs.fed.us/library/brochures/docs/2000/ForestFactsMetric.pdf
- ^ https://www.ft.com/content/4f0579ac-409f-41d2-bf40-410d5a2ee46b
- ^ http://www.fao.org/3/X5318E/x5318e02.htm
- ^ http://visionofhumanity.org/reports
- ^ According to 2021 OECD DAC data, climate finance for mitigation in Africa has been $82 billion, compared with $65 billion over the period 2000-2019 in USD 2019 equivalent. Data for Africa, South of Sahara and North of Sahara were aggregated, and duplicated entries were subtracted. https://www.oecd.org/dac/financing-sustainable-development/development-finance-topics/climate-change.htm
- ^ https://gca.org/news/african-presidents-and-global-leaders-support-bold-action-on-climate-change-adaptation-for-africa/
- ^ https://afripoli.org/aligning-africas-nationally-determined-contributions-with-their-long-term-national-development-plans